Standard Operating Procedure In Excel
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understanding XLS essentials XLS Chapter : figuring out XLS necessities SAS/access utility for notebook File codecs: Reference
This chapter introduces SAS system users to XLS data. It makes a speciality of the terms and ideas that assist you use the SAS/entry interface and contains descriptions of XLS information XLS file naming conventions XLS file facts forms how the SAS/entry interface works. XLS data contain records in the type of Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. unless otherwise noted, Excel four and Excel 5 data are referred to together all the way through this record as XLS. Excel 5 data are not supported below OS/2. word: The entry and DBLOAD strategies don’t assist info in the Excel 97 (edition 8) format. youngsters, that you may still access Excel 97 files through the SAS Import/Export facility. From a SAS session’s program EDITOR window, choose the File menu and then choose the Import facts or Export statistics item. advice about a way to import and export Excel facts is obtainable from the [ support ] button. to write down code to import or export Excel information, consult with the IMPORT or EXPORT system description within the SAS approaches guide .
various application items, such as the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, permit you to make use of spreadsheet or database data to enter, prepare, and function calculations on facts. Spreadsheets are most often used for widely wide-spread ledgers, salary statements, and other forms of monetary listing maintaining. Database info also enable you to prepare related assistance, such as the data in an bills-receivable journal. In spreadsheets, the information are equipped based on certain relationships among records items. These relationships are expressed in a tabular form–in columns and rows. each column represents one category of data, and each row can hang one statistics cost for each and every column. A Microsoft Excel 5.0 worksheet, as an example, is an digital spreadsheet which include a grid of 256 columns and sixteen,384 rows. The intersection of a column and a row is referred to as a cellphone . Columns and Rows of statistics in an XLS File illustrates a element of a common Excel worksheet. Columns and Rows of information in an XLS File Column letters for every column appear above the worksheet. Columns are lettered A through IV (A to Z, AA to AZ, BA to BZ, and the like to IV). Row numbers for every row appear to the left of the worksheet. Rows are numbered 1 to sixteen,384. For Excel four info, just one worksheet (worksheet 1) is allowed per file, but more than one worksheet can also be saved in a workbook. You ought to convert any worksheets you shop in a workbook lower back to worksheets earlier than you can use the data in a SAS program.
A range is a subset of cells in a worksheet. a variety is identified by using its address, which starts with the name of the good left cell and ends with the identify of the backside appropriate mobile separated with the aid of two periods. as an example, the latitude B3..D6 is the latitude tackle for an oblong block of 12 cells whose true left cell is B3 and whose bottom right mobilephone is D6 (as shaded in the screen). XLS File Naming Conventions
here conventions practice to XLS filenames. Filenames have to additionally observe operating-device certain conventions, so verify the documentation that comes with your Microsoft Excel product or different utility items for additional guidance. beneath home windows 95, home windows ninety eight, windows NT, and OS/2, the entry and DBLOAD procedures support long names which are targeted within the direction= observation (similar to direction= ‘c:sasdemolibrarynew_customer_1999.xls’; ). however, XLS information with long names may no longer approved by way of some versions of Microsoft Excel. Filenames start with a letter, and that they can comprise any mixture of the letters A through Z, the digits 0 via 9, the underscore (_), the hyphen (-), and areas (blanks) inside filenames. Filenames can contain areas. Filenames that comprise spaces or lowercase letters are supported with the aid of the entry and DBLOAD strategies, but they may not be accredited with the aid of some models of Microsoft Excel.
Microsoft Excel utility has two facts types: personality and numeric. Microsoft Excel persona records could be entered as labels or system strings; Microsoft Excel numeric statistics could be entered as numbers or formulas. character facts are commonly considered textual content and may consist of dates and numbers. Numeric information can encompass numbers (0 via 9), formulas, and cell entries that start with one among here symbols: +, $, @, -, =, or #. in the event you create and load an Excel file with PROC DBLOAD, the SAS/entry engine components #NA for a lacking, numeric value. Numeric records can also include date and time values. In Microsoft Excel application, a date value is the integer component of a number that may latitude from 01 January 1900 to 31 December 2078, that is, 1 to 65380. A Microsoft Excel application time value is the decimal portion of a number that represents time as a proportion of a day. as an instance, 0.0 is hour of darkness, 0.5 is midday, and zero.999988 is 23:fifty nine:fifty nine (on a 24-hour clock). whereas a bunch can have both a date and a time portion, the formats in Microsoft Excel reveal a host best in a date, time, or datetime format. For tips on how the SAS/access interface handles date and time values and formats, see How the SAS system Handles Date and Time Values. should you create an access descriptor, the interface utility uses the column forms and formats in the XLS file to investigate the corresponding SAS variable formats. The SAS equipment generates its default formats based on the values that you just specify for the SCANTYPE, SKIPROWS, and GETNAMES statements (or in the corresponding fields within the access Descriptor Identification window). that you can change the formats generated by way of the utility interface. For extra assistance, see How the SAS/access Interface Works.
When you create an access descriptor, any information value that does not fit the column class (personality or numeric) is handled as a missing cost. this is the default action. youngsters, which you can use the blended=yes commentary to convert numeric records values in a character column to their character illustration.
that you would be able to additionally set the SS_MIXED atmosphere variable to sure on your SAS configuration file so that each numeric and character information are displayed as SAS persona facts. Add this line to your SAS configuration file: -SET SS_MIXED sure See surroundings ambiance Variables for more counsel on atmosphere variables. For more tips on altering the column category from the classification decided via SAS/access utility if you create an access descriptor, refer to the sections on XLS-specific method statements later in this chapter.
The conversion of date and time values between SAS data units and Microsoft Excel spreadsheets is clear to clients. youngsters, you are inspired to consider the differences between them. Microsoft Excel date and time values and codecs are described in XLS statistics forms. Datetime Conversions within the entry procedure
As described previous during this chapter, an XLS date price is the integer element of a host that represents the variety of days between January 1, 1900 and a exact date. An XLS time cost is a decimal portion of a number that represents time as a portion of the day. for example, 0.0 is 12:00:00 a.m., and 0.9999884 is 11:fifty nine:59 p.m. while a bunch can have both a date and a time portion, the codecs in XLS display a host only in a date layout or in a time layout. for example, for 1:00 p.m., March 12, 1994, the XLS date price is 34405, the time price is 0.5416667, and the datetime value is 34405.5416667.(footnote 1) The SAS system handles date and time values in a different way than XLS. A SAS date value is an integer that represents the number of days between January 1, 1960 and a precise date. A SAS time value is an integer that represents the number of seconds when you consider that middle of the night of the current day. When a date and a time are both current, the SAS device stores the cost as the number of seconds due to the fact midnight, January 1, 1960. as an example, for 1:00 p.m., March 12, 1994, the SAS date value is12489, and the SAS time value is 46800. therefore, the SAS datetime price is 1079096400. in the event you create an entry descriptor, the SAS device converts an XLS datetime structure to its corresponding SAS datetime format if an XLS datetime format is distinct for the variable in the XLS file. word that if the datetime cost does not have an XLS structure within the XLS file, the SAS gadget treats the datetime cost like a numeric cost. to transform an XLS datetime layout to a SAS datetime format, you want a SAS datetime layout in the entry descriptor. as an example, changing the default SAS numeric format (15.2) to a SAS date layout in the descriptor explanations the XLS date cost (based on January 1, 1900) to be converted to an equivalent SAS date price (in line with January 1, 1960). In other phrases, the XLS numeric cost for January 1, 1960 (which is 21916) is transformed to the equivalent SAS representation of January 1, 1960 (which is 0) simplest if a SAS datetime layout is assigned in the descriptor for that column. otherwise, the XLS value of 21916 is treated as a SAS numeric price of 21916. right here table indicates how the SAS device uses a Microsoft Excel datetime value to transform to a SAS datetime layout. price-to-format Conversions For a SAS format SAS gadget uses date integer portion of the Microsoft Excel quantity time decimal element of the Microsoft Excel number date-and-time integer and decimal component of the Microsoft Excel number Datetime Conversions within the DBLOAD method
If a SAS variable is distinctive with a date, time, or datetime structure in the structure remark, the interface view engine converts that SAS datetime layout into the equivalent Microsoft Excel datetime format when the new XLS file is created. however, if a SAS datetime structure is not special in the enter SAS facts set, you should assign a layout by using a PROC DBLOAD structure observation. Doing so assigns a Microsoft Excel datetime structure to the SAS variable when the variable is loaded into an XLS file. if you don’t assign a SAS datetime format, the SAS numeric price for the date is written to the XLS file. as a result of SAS dates are in accordance with January 1, 1960, and Microsoft Excel dates are in accordance with January 1, 1900, the date value within the XLS file will be inaccurate. To hold a SAS variable format in the input statistics set, yet exchange it just whereas the DBLOAD method is in growth, use the layout commentary in PROC DBLOAD. This remark permits you to assign a temporary structure to a SAS variable at some point of the procedure with out affecting the input SAS facts set. for instance, if the SAS structure for the BIRTHDAT variable in the MYDATA.SASEMPS entry descriptor is left on the default 15.2 format, which you can specify the format observation to change the variable’s layout to DATE7. when you are creating and loading the XLS file. if you load the XLS file, the DATE7. layout turns into an equivalent Microsoft column structure, DDMMMYY. When the DBLOAD method has achieved, the SAS structure for the BIRTHDAT variable returns to the 15.2 layout. that you would be able to specify the layout observation in the PROC DBLOAD remark should you invoke the technique using any of the strategies of processing. access procedure records Conversions
Use PROC entry to define descriptors that identify spreadsheet records and the conversions critical to make use of the information in SAS classes. The Microsoft Excel label records category is formatted as a SAS persona classification, and the Microsoft Excel quantity data classification is formatted as a SAS numeric type. Fonts, attributes, and colors within the XLS information don’t seem to be read into the SAS records units. although, the access process supports most of the XLS number formats and immediately converts them to the corresponding SAS codecs. Any XLS facts strings longer than 200 characters are truncated whereas being transformed into SAS information units, and any SAS information file made from XLS information can include up to 256 variables and 16,384 observations. Default SAS equipment Variable codecs for XLS File information indicates the default SAS system variable formats that the entry procedure assigns to every category of general XLS file facts. Default SAS equipment Variable codecs for personalized XLS format Strings gives SAS system variable codecs for customized XLS format strings. XLS file numeric facts include date and time values. See How the SAS system Handles Date and Time Values for more tips. Default SAS device Variable formats for XLS File records
XLS File data SAS Variable layout data type XLS structure String class structure Char (desk word 1) @ (table word 2) Char $w. Numeric (table word 3) familiar Num superior Numeric 0 Num w.d Numeric 0.00 Num w.d Numeric #,##0 Num COMMAw.d Numeric #,##0.00 Num COMMAw.d Numeric #,##0_);(#,##0) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric #,##0_);[Red](#,##0) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric #,##0.00_);(#,##0.00) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric #,##0.00_);[Red](#,##0.00) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric $#,##0_);($#,##0) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric $#,##0_);[Red]($#,##0) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric ($#,##0.00_);($#,##0.00) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric ($#,##0.00_);[Red]($#,##0.00) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric _($*#,##0_);_($*(#,##0);_($*"-"_);_(@_) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric _(*#,##0_);_(*(#,##0);_(*"-"_);_(@_) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric _($*#,##0.00_);_($*(#,##0.00);_($*"-"??_);_(@_) Num DOLLARw.d Numeric _(*#,##0.00_);_(*(#,##0.00);_(*"-"??_);_(@_) Num NEGPARENw.d Numeric 0% Num PERCENTw.d Numeric 0.00% Num PERCENTw.d Numeric 0.00E+00 Num Ew.d Numeric ##0.0E+0 Num Ew.d Numeric m/d/yy Num MMDDYYw. Numeric d-mmm-yy Num MMDDYYw. Numeric d-mmm Num DATEw. Numeric mmm-yy Num MONYYw. Numeric h:mm AM/PM Num TIMEw. Numeric h:mm:ss AM/PM Num TIMEw. Numeric h:mm Num TIMEw. Numeric hh:mm Num TIMEw. Numeric h:mm:ss Num TIMEw. Numeric hh:mm:ss Num TIMEw. Numeric m/d/yy h:mm Num DATETIMEw. Numeric ddmmmyy Num DATEw. Numeric ddmmmyyyy:hh:mm:ss Num DATETIMEw. Numeric dd Num DATEw. Numeric dd/mm/yy Num DDMMYYw. Numeric dddd Num DATEw. Numeric mm/dd/yy Num MMDDYYw. Numeric mm:ss Num MMSSw. Numeric mm yy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm:yy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm:yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm-yy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm-yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mmyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mmyyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm.yy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm.yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm/yy Num MONYYw. Numeric mm/yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mmmm Num MONYYw. Numeric m Num MONYYw. Numeric mmmyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mmmyyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric dddd, mmmm dd, yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric dddd, dd mmmm yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric mmmm dd, yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric dd mmmm yyyy Num MONYYw. Numeric yy Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy:mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy:mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy-mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy-mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yymm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyymm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy.mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy.mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy/mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyy/mm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yy-mm-dd Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yymmm Num YYMMDDw. Numeric yyyymmm Num YYMMDDw. table notice 1: Label facts. table be aware 2: The XLS persona layout for Excel version 5.0. desk be aware 3: number, components, or lacking statistics. Default SAS equipment Variable formats for personalized XLS layout Strings
XLS File statistics SAS Variable layout statistics class XLS structure String class structure Numeric "$" Num DOLLARw.d Numeric "E" Num Ew.d Numeric "m, d and y" Num MMDDYYw. Numeric "m and h" Num TIMEw.d Numeric "m and s" Num TIMEw.d Numeric "m and y" Num MONYYw. Numeric "m" Num DATEw. Numeric "d" Num DATEw. Numeric "y" Num DATEw. Numeric "0.0" Num w.d Numeric Fraction values (#?/?) Num BESTw.d Numeric percent values (0.0%) Num PERCENTw.d Numeric All others Num BESTw.d note that w is in keeping with Excel column width; .d is managed by the Excel format string. If XLS file information fall outside of the legitimate SAS facts levels, you acquire an error message within the SAS log in case you are attempting to entry the information.
The SAS/access interface does not absolutely support the Microsoft Excel hidden and text codecs. XLS information in hidden layout are displayed in SAS information sets; besides the fact that children, that you would be able to drop the hidden column when you’re creating the access descriptor. if you wish to monitor the components in the text structure, add an area to indicate that the method entry is a label. in any other case, the outcomes of the method are displayed.
in case you have set the SS_MIXED atmosphere variable to sure, the numerical values in XLS files are converted to personality strings in SAS information units if the corresponding SAS variable type is special as personality. DBLOAD system data Conversions
This section explains how SAS statistics are examine into Microsoft Excel statistics when a table is loaded. in this conversion, the SAS persona records type is converted into the Microsoft Excel label type and the SAS numeric classification is transformed into the Microsoft Excel quantity type. The SAS/entry interface instantly converts SAS formats to the same or linked Microsoft Excel formats and column widths. besides the fact that children, you could temporarily assign different formats and column widths to SAS variables through the use of the layout commentary so that the loaded XLS file columns have the codecs you want. changing SAS gadget Variable codecs to XLS File facts suggests the SAS system variable types and codecs and the XLS data types, codecs, and column widths that you can assign them to. observe: The format commentary in PROC DBLOAD simplest adjustments the layout of SAS variables when you are creating and loading the XLS data. When the system is achieved, the formats of SAS variables return to their normal settings. XLS values are numeric facts. See How the SAS equipment Handles Date and Time Values for extra counsel. converting SAS system Variable codecs to XLS File records
SAS Variable structure XLS File records category structure XLS layout String data class Char " " everyday LABEL Char $CHAR ordinary LABEL Char $ customary LABEL Num BESTw.d widespread quantity Num COMMAw.d #,##0 quantity Num COMMAXw.d #,##0 quantity Num DATEw. ddmmmyy quantity Num DATETIMEw.d ddmmmyyyy:hh:mm:ss quantity Num DAYw. dd number Num DDMMYYw. dd/mm/yy quantity Num DOLLARw.d "$"#,##0_);("$"#,##0) number Num DOLLARXw.d "$"#,##0_);("$"#,##0) number Num DOWNAMEw.d dddd quantity Num Ew. 0.00E+00 quantity Num HHMMw.d h:mm number Num HOURw.d h:mm number Num JULDAYw. m/d/yy quantity Num JULIANw. m/d/yy quantity Num MMDDYYw. mm/dd/yy number Num MMSSw.d mm:ss number Num MMYYxw. mmyy number Num MMYYC mm:yy number Num MMYYD mm-yy quantity Num MMYYN mmyy quantity Num MMYYP mm.yy quantity Num MMYYS mm/yy number Num MONNAMEw. mmmm quantity Num MONTHw. m number Num MONYYw. mmmyy number Num NEGPARENw.d #,##0_);(#,##0) quantity Num NENGOw. m/d/yy number Num PERCENTw.d 0% quantity Num QTRw. m/d/yy number Num QTRRw. m/d/yy number Num SSNw. 000-00-0000 quantity Num TIMEw.d h:mm:ss number Num TODw. h:mm:ss number Num W 0 quantity Num WEEKDATEw. dddd, mmmmdd, yyyy quantity Num WEEKDATXw. dddd, dd mmmmyyyy quantity Num WEEKDAYw. m/d/yy quantity Num WORDDATEw. mmmmdd, yyyy quantity Num WORDDATXw. ddmmmmyyyy number Num YEARw. yy or yyyy number Num YYMM yy mm quantity Num YYMMC yy:mm quantity Num YYMMD yy-mm number Num YYMMN yymm number Num YYMMP yy.mm number Num YYMMS yy/mm quantity Num YYMMDDw. yy-mm-dd number Num YYMONw. yymmm quantity Num Zw.d 0w.d quantity Num FRACTw. # ?/? number
word that Excel column widths are set to w and displayed in the column. If information are larger than column width, the facts are displayed as pound signals (###), in which case the facts will also be considered through adjusting the column width. FOOTNOTE 1: in this description, datetime (in lowercase) refers to any cost or format that represents a date, a time, or both a date and a time. Copyright 1999 via SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, usa. All rights reserved. Undercutting the charge of Underperforming Attorneys this text appeared in advertising and marketing the law company, an ALM/legislation Journal Newsletters publication reporting on the latest, and most positive, ideas for Chief advertising Officers, Managing partners, law firm advertising directors, administrators and Consultants. closing decision about reopening tutorial institutions nowadays ISLAMABAD: whereas a little over 6,000 energetic circumstances of Covid-19 have been left across the country, federal and the provincial governments will sit down together on Monday (today) to come to a decision about reopening of 300,000 educational associations which have been lying closed for the remaining six months. “though it’s appropriate that over 6,000 energetic instances of the Covid-19 were left in the nation, the biggest problem, that may trigger spike of virus, is barely ahead as we’re going to open educational institutions in 10 days,” federal Minister for Planning, construction and particular Initiatives Asad Umar talked about informed daybreak. He referred to the government took every high chance experience, akin to Eidul Azha and Muharram, as a challenge and tried to make certain implementation of the usual operating techniques (SOPs) to steer clear of an increase within the number of Covid-19 cases. “There are 50 million students, two million lecturers and 300,000 academic associations in the nation. So we need to be additional vigilant to make sure implementation of SOPs. Representatives of the federal and the provincial government will take a seat collectively on Monday (nowadays) to make a decision concerning the route of action for reopening of faculties,” he stated. “in the past we dealt smartly with the high chance movements such as cattle markets, Eid prayers and Muharram processions. although, reopening of tutorial associations is a much larger high risk adventure and we’re making particular preparations to contend with it,” he stated. NCOC places total number of active Covid-19 instances in Pakistan at 6,269 The minister hoped that, with the cooperation of the provinces and below the umbrella of the country wide Command and Operation Centre (NCOC), the nation would circulate during the subsequent section of the pandemic efficaciously. meanwhile, the NCOC on Sunday announced that total active Covid-19 cases in Pakistan had dropped to six,269. It claimed that handiest eighty five ventilators, out of 1,912 allocated for Covid-19 sufferers, were in use and there become no affected person on ventilator in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Gilgit-Baltistan and Balochistan. The NCOC claimed that to this point 2.7 million checks had been carried out throughout the country. in response to a presentation given to the NCOC and accessible with dawn, the positivity ratio among each day verified samples turned into 24.25 per cent on June 1 but then it all started shedding and for the closing 20 days the ratio has declined to under two per cent. As per the presentation, Covid-19 mortality expense has additionally fallen in Pakistan as one hundred twenty five sufferers died on June 15 however below a dozen mortalities had been being suggested for the remaining 20 days, apart from sooner or later, Sept 2, when 18 mortalities were said. On June 15 there were 518 sufferers on ventilators but there were below one hundred on ventilators for the remaining one week. although 7,one hundred and one healthcare people were contaminated with the virus, 81pc of them have recovered. whereas country wide ratio of exams is 12,928 per million individuals, the graph of province-clever assessments suggests that Islamabad is way ahead as in comparison to the provinces, AJK and GB. In Islamabad a hundred and forty,985 exams per million people had been carried out, in Sindh 21,928, in GB 15,855, in Punjab 9,106, in AJK eight,471, in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa eight,205 and in Balochistan 6,277. Mr Umar pointed out even about 6,000 lively situations showed that the virus became alive in Pakistan and there changed into need to take extra steps to manage it. “We should continue our efforts to manage and eradicate the virus as a result of otherwise opportunity of reoccurrence of virus can not be rejected,” he spoke of. The resolution to open the tutorial institutions will be made at a meeting of the inter-provincial education ministers’ conference (IPEMC). The IPEMC will review the Covid-19 situation and, in line with health ministry’s instructions, take a choice no matter if to reopen all tutorial associations from the already announced date of Sept 15 or not. examine: permitting all colleges in Pakistan to reopen concurrently breaches the boundaries of prudence The meeting, in response to sources, will also finalise and approve the SOPs to be adopted by means of tutorial associations. Some officers of the schooling ministry said there were chances that the assembly would permit staggered re-opening of educational associations or on alternate day opening of junior and senior classes to avoid gathering in faculties and faculties. The academic associations of the nation had been closed on March 15 due to Covid-19 pandemic. past, the govt had introduced reopening of the institutions from Sept 15, discipline to concepts of the IPEMC. The meeting will additionally talk about subject of shortened academic syllabus and examinations in 2021, the sources mentioned. Federal schooling Minister Shafqat Mahmood will short the provincial training ministers in regards to the growth thus far made on single country wide curriculum. The federal government in collaboration with the provinces is determined to introduce uniform schooling system within the country in three phases, to provide all college students of the nation equal opportunities to excel. the first phase, in keeping with Mr Mahmood’s contemporary statement, may be launched in April next year in all public and personal simple schools and originally of the academic yr in seminaries. The subsequent two phases should be launched in 2022 and 2023. in line with the sources, throughout the IPEMC, details of recently fashioned anti-bullying and anti-harassment committees notified via Federal Directorate of training for Islamabad-primarily based schools and colleges will even be shared with the provincial ministers in order that, if convinced, they might kind such committees in academic associations of their provinces. The sources talked about the training ministers would also talk about the transition plan of simple schooling neighborhood colleges and countrywide fee for Human construction. For Islamabad-primarily based academic institutions, the federal education ministry had already decided that Saturday could be working day unless examinations whereas remedial classes can be held in vicinity of wintry weather holidays to aid students mitigate their loss, which they have faced all over Covid-19 epidemic. published in morning time, September 7th, 2020.